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  • Chapter-2 - Antiquity Of Jainism

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    1. When Jainism was established and by whom ?

    Jainism is ab-aeterno-ad-infinitum, i.e. it existed from beginningless time and will exist till infinite time. Its founder is not also Teerthankara Rishabhdeva, Teerthankara Parshwanath and Teerthankara Mahaveer. Certainly it is so that from time to time its enforcement goes on happening through Teerthankaras and this religion advances only through them. Just as the Constitution of India does not change, only there is change in the government, similarly the doctrines (constitution/rules & regulation) of Jainism do not change, only the government (Teerthankaras) used to go on changing. But according to the opinion of general people some regard it a branch of Buddhism or its origination from Buddhism and some regard it a branch of Hindu religion but it is not so.


    2. How the antiquity of Jainism is proved according to Archaeology department ?

    The antiquity of Jainism is proved according to the Archaeology department thus - The wellknown Archaeologist Dr. Rakhaldas Banarjee has investigated Indus valley civilization. On a seal No. 449 found here in excavation something has been written. Prof. Pran Nath Vidyalankar has read it as 'Jineswar' (Jin-e-e-israh - जिन-इ-इ-इसर:). According to the statement of the Archaeologist Raibhadur Chandra one idol has been found in the seals of the Indus valley in which disposition of renunciation and aversion from worldly enjoyments identical with the idol of Lord (Teerthankara) Rishabhdeva in standing posture of Mathura are seen. Moreover, the idol which is engraved on seal No. 2 F.G.H.., the disposition of renunciation is precisely clear on it and below the figure of the idol there is also the figure of the bull which is symbol of Teerthankara Rishabhdeva. On the basis of all these facts, many learned have regarded Jainism as of the period of Indus valley civilization. The Indus Valley civilization has been accepted 5000 years old from today.


    The main part of the nude human body found in Harappa also indicates the existence of Jain Teerthankaras in Indus valley civilization. Director General of the central Archaeological department T. N. Ramchandran has written after profound study - 'The engraved idol in meditative relaxation posture found in the investigation of Harappa, is fully a Digamber Jain idol'. The 'Kankali Teela' of Mathura is most important from the view-point of Jain Archaeology. In its excavation, apart from an extremely ancient deities-created mound (a domeshaped monuments containing relics), (whose creation-period is not known) one hundred ten rock inscriptions and hundreds of idols have been found which range from second century B.C. to 12th century. According to Archaeologists the above mentioned mound was rebuilt in eighth century B.C..According to Dr. Vincent A. Smith it is proved from the investigation related to Mathura that the existence of Jain Teerthankaras was there much earlier from Christian era. Recognition of Teerthankara Rishabhdeva, etc. twenty four Teerthankaras was in vogue from ancient time. (Jain Siddhant Shikshan : Muni Pramansagar ji) It is proved from the rock inscription of Hathi gufa got caused carved by Emperor Kharvel that the installation and worshipping of the idol of Rishabhdeva is in vogue from ancient time.


    3. How the antiquity of Jainism is proved according to Vaisnava religion ?

    It is known from the investigation of various scriptures and mythological texts of Vaishnava religion that how much antiquity was there of Jainism which we are presenting here -

    1. It is written in Shivpurana -

    अष्ट षष्ठिसु तीर्थेषु यात्रायां यत्फलं भवेत् ।

    श्री आदिनाथ देवस्य स्मरणेनापि तद्भवेत् ॥


    The fruit which is gained by the pilgrimage of 68 places of pilgrimage that much fruit is gained merely remembering Teerthankara Adinath.


    2. It has been told in Mahabharat -

    युगेयुगे महापुण्यं दृश्यते द्वारिका पुरी ।

    अवतीर्णो हरियंत्र प्रभासशशि भूषणः ।

    रेवताद्रौ जिनो नेमियुगादि विमलाचले ।

    ऋषीणामाश्रमादेव मुक्ति मार्गस्य कारणम् ।


    Dwarkapuri is a great zone, in which Hari (Shri Krishna) was incarnated, which is made splendid like the moon in the rediant area and Neminath on Girnar mountain and Adinath on Kailash "(Astapada) had existed. This region being a hermitage of Risiees (great ascetics), is instrumental of salvation path.


    3. It has been said in Mahabharat -

    आरोहस्व रथं पार्थ गांडीवं करे कुरु ।

    निर्जिता मेदिनी मन्ये निर्गुथा यदि सन्मुखे ।


    O Arjuna! ride on the chariot and take Gandeeva-bow in hand. I know, infront of whom Digamber Muni is coming, his victory is certain.


    4. It has been said in Rigveda -

    | मैं त्रैलोक्य प्रतिष्ठितानां चतुर्विंशति तीर्थंकराणाम् ।

    ऋषभादिवर्द्धमानान्तानां सिद्धानां शरणं प्रपद्ये॥


    There are twentyfour Teerthankara renowned in all the three worlds beginning from Rishabhadeva up to Vardhman Swami. I take refuge of those liberated souls.


    5. It has been said in Rigveda -

    मैं नग्नं सुधीरं दिग्वाससं ब्रह्मगर्भ सनातनं उपैमि वीरं ।

    पुरुषमहँतमादित्य वर्णं तसमः पुरस्तात् स्वाहा ॥


    I take refuge of nude, resolute, brave, naked, eternal Omniscient like Brahama, the suncomplexioned supreme being.


    6. It has been said in Yajurveda -

    | ॐ नमोऽर्हन्तो ऋषभो ।


    I pay my obeisance to Rishabhdeva named omniscient.


    7. It has been written in Dakshina Murti Sahasranama treatise -

    | शिव उवाच। जैन मार्गरतो जैनो जितक्रोधो जितामयः।।


    Shivaji told - Who takes pleasure in the Jain path such follower of Jainism overcomes anger as well as diseases.


    8. It has been said in Nag Purana -

    दशभिजितैर्विप्रैः यत्फलं जायते कृते ।

    मुनेरर्हत्सुभक्तस्य तत्फलं जायते कलौ ।


    What fruit is gained by feeding ten Brahmins in 'Satayuga', the same fruit is gained by giving food to a Arihant -devotee Muni in this Kaliag.


    9. There is narration of Rishabhdeva in chapter 2 to 6 of the fifth canto of Bhagwat the gist of which, is that out of fourteen Manus Rishabhdeva took birth as the grand son of first Manu Swambhoo and the son of Nabhi who was the first preacher of Jainism. Euological prayers of Rishabhdeva have been described in 141 precepts of Rigveda. There are many such examples in many Hindu texts.


    4. How the antiquity of jainism is proved according to scholars / learned ?

    1.  A German scholar Dr. Jacobi is in agreement with this very view / option that the period of Lord Rishabhdeva is innumerable years earlier from now.
    2. In an English work captioned 'Bhagwan Aristnemi' written byShri Harisataya Bhattacharya Teerthankara Neminath has been accepted as a historical great personage.
    3. According to Dr. Vinsent Smith-Mathura search has given great support to the Jain traditions which are the incontrovertible proof of the antiquity and universality of Jain religion. Realization of Jain mound (Stoopa) of Mathura and idols of 24Teerthankaras with symbols prove that Jainism existed even before Christian era.
    4. Professor Chakravarti of Madras has confirmed in the book ,'Vaidik Sahitya ka Tulnatmak Addhyayan' that the Jainism is as old as the Hindu religion.
    5. Dr. Radhakrishnan has clearly written in 'Indian philosopy' on page 287 that people used to worship Teerthankara Rishabhdeva up to 1st century B.C.
    6. Shri Lokmanya Balgangadhar Tilak had delivered a speech in Baroda on 30th November, 1904 that the Jainism has left uninterrupted deep lasting effect on Brahmin religion "The priciple of non-violence existed in Jainism from very beginning. Today the Brahmins and all Hindu people are demanding which restriction on meat-eating and drinking of alcohol that is, precisely the legacy of Jainism and is precisely the influence of Jainism. The Jainism, which propagates and spreads mercy, compassion and non-violence will remain everlasting ad-inifinitum".
    7. Dr. Kalidas Nag had published which photograph of the nude-idol in his book 'Discovery of Asia' was 10 thousand years old. Dr. Nag has accepted this photograph corresponding to Jain idol.
    8. Shri Chitsang has thoroughly investigated the principles of Lord Rishabhdeva in Chinese language in 'Upaya Hirdaya Shashtra'. The personality and religion of Lord Rishabhdeva has greatly influenced the learned of Chinese language.
    9. Professor Jeosef Taksy of Itly has found one idol of Teerthankara in Tibbat which he took to Rome. It is made clear from this idol that sometime Jainism was in vogue also in Tibbat.
    10. It is proved by the statements/writings of Greek writers that Paythogoras Daijenesh, like Greek metaphyscicians, took education - initiation (restraint-vow ,etc.) from Jain Saints. Kalyan Muni went with King Alexandar in his country for propagation of religion.
    11. The well-known Archealogist of Japan Prof. Hazime Nakamura writes that which Chinese translated-editions of Buddhist texts are available, there is mention of the subject related with the first Teerthankara Rishabhdeva. Japanese are not unfamiliar with the pesonality of Teerthankara Rishabhdeva. Japanese identify Rishabhdeva by the name of 'Rakooshava'.


    5. What is written in the treatises of Buddhism about Jainism ?

    It is written in Buddha Mahavagga - A great number of nude saints (Digamber Sadhoo) were delivering religious sermons on each road of Vaishali. It is written in Aguttar Nikaya - the son of Nath (Teerthankara Mahavir) was omniseer, having infinite knowledge and fully alert at every moment and was placed in the form of Omniscient. Teerthankara Rishabhdeva has been told as an unattached and passionless Teerthankar and a real spiritual authority in Manjoo Shrikalpa text. In Niyayabindu, Teerthanaka Mahaveer has been described as Omniscient, i.e. Teerthankara having omniscience, a real spiritual authority. It is written in Majjhimnikaya-Teerthankara Mahaveer was an Omniscient, omniseer and a scholar of entire knowledge and philosophy. It is written in Deergha Nikaya-Lord Mahaveer is a Teerthankara, is worshippable by human beings and is Gandharacharya ,i.e. a spiritual authority


    6. Which is the number of incarnation of Rishabha (Rishabhavtara) out of 22 incarnation of Vishnu ?

    According to Vaishnava religon incarnation number eight.


    Exercise -

    Whether correct or incorrect ?

    1. Jainism was founded by Teerthankara Mahaveer.
    2. Jainism is also found in foreign countries.
    3. One learned has proved Teerthankara Neminath as a historical person.
    4. Paythogoras was not taught by Jain saints.
    5. Japanese recognise Teerthankara Rishabhdeva by the name of 'Rakooshava'


    Search elsewhere -

    1. 26 names of Vishnu have been given in Vaishnava religion. Apply definition of those names on Jainism.
    2. In which treatise of Vaishnava religion Vatrasana ,etc. nine sons of King Rishabhdeva have been told?
    3. Who philoshoper has told that all the four Vedas eulogize Teerthankara Rishabhdeva?


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