1. What is 'Dhyana' (Meditation)?
(1) “उत्तमसंहननस्यैकाग्रचिन्ता निरोधो ध्यानमान्तर्मुहूर्तात्" (तत्त्वार्थ सूत्र 9/27)
- Concentration of thought on one particular object by a person with the best physical structure or constitution, is meditation which extends up to one 'Antarmhurta' (48 minutes).
(2) Nishchayanayapeksha - Due to destruction of delusion which is the root cause of regarding a situation favourable or unfavoureble one (desired or undesired), the mind becomes stable, that stableness of mind, is meditation.
(3) “चित्तविक्षेपत्यागो ध्यानम्'' - Abandoning hesitation (uncertainty) of mind, is meditation.
2. What are the kinds of meditation ?
Meditation is of four kinds - Arttadhyana, Raudradhyana, Dharmadhyana and Shukladhyana.
3. What is Arttadhyana and of how many kinds it is?
'Artta' means pain or grief. Lingering the mind in painful experience, is Arttadhyana, i.e. painful concentration. It is of four kinds - Ista viyogaja, Anist Samyogaja, Vednajanya and Nidan.
- Ista viyogaja, i.e. separation from the desired one - when agreeable objects like desired Guru, disciple, friend, brother, woman, wealth, field, etc. are separated, thinking again and again for regaining them, is Ista viyogaja Artta dhyana, i.e. sorrowful concentration on separation of the desired ones.
- Anist Samyogaja ,i.e. undesirable coincidental meeting. - On the contact of disagreeable objects like undesired leader, thing, field, brother, etc., thinking again and again for their separation (removal), is Anist Samyogaja concentration, i.e. undesirable coincidental meeting.
- Vednajanya - When there is pain caused by terrible diseases such as, cancer, blood pressure, aids, heart-attack, tuberculosis, tumer, etc. thinking again and again for their removal, is 'Vednajanya' or pain-thinking or sorrowful concentration.
- Nidan - Being tormented by the desire for future pleasures, thinking again and again for their attainment, is Nidana Artta dhyana, i.e. concentration for getting sensory pleasures in the next birth as the fruit of austerity.
Note : The Nidan Dhyana remains from 1 to 5 Gunasthana and remaining three Artta Dhyana from 1 to 6 Gunasthanas.
4. What is Raudra dhyana and what are its kinds ?
Meditation originated from cruel thought activities / feeling is 'Raudra' or cruel concentration. It is of four kinds - 'Himsanand', 'Mirsanand', 'Chauryanand'and 'Parigrahanand'.
(1) Himsanand - Taking pleasure in doing violence by himself, causes to be done by others and approving the acts of violence, is 'Himsanand' 'Raudra dhyan' i.e. a wicked concentration in violent activities with interest.
(2) Mirsanand - Taking pleasure in telling lie, causing it to be spoken by others and approving a lier and taking pleasure in slandering ,etc., is 'Mirsanand Raudra dhyana, i.e. concentration in enjoying falsity.
(3) Chauryanand - Taking pleasure in stealing, causing stealing by others, approving theft, helping the thief in penal proceedings and in purchasing theft-things, is Chauryanand Raudra dhyana ,i.e. concentration in feeling pleasure in stealing activities.
(4) 'Parigrahanand' or 'Visaya samrakshanand' - Feeling pleasure in collecting belongings, protecting objects of sensual pleasure and to be joyful in their collection and protection, is 'Parigrahanand Raudra dhyana,' i.e. deep involvement in the lust of wealth.
Note - All Raudra dhyanas occur from first to the fifth stage of spiritual development.
5. What is the Dharma Dhyana (Virtuous concentration) ?
Stability of mind in auspicious thoughts, is Dharama Dhyana or virtuous concentration. Dharma (religion) is called as Right faith, Right knowledge and Right conduct and meditation combined with that religion, is Dharma Dhyana (R.K.S., 3) or thought activity of the soul free from delusion and perturbation and agitation, is called religion and concentration generated from that religion, is called 'Dharma Dhyana'. (Tattvanushasana, 52)
It is of four types. 'Aajñā vichaya', 'Apaya vichaya', 'Vipak vichaya' and 'Samsthan vichaya'.
(1) Aajñā vichaya - Having belief in such subtle entities which are not visible by senses like karam-bond, salvation ,etc. and concentration on them taking them as granted on the authority of the word of Lord Jinendra Deva, is 'Aajñā vichaya Dharma Dhayana',i.e. respecting the teaching of Arihanta and of scriptures
(2) 'Apaya vichaya' - How people wandering astray in the world, may get rid of (escape from) false belief, false knowledge and wrong conduct, thinking thus again and again, is 'Apaya vichaya Dharma Dhyana'. (Sarvartha Siddhi, 9/36/890)
(3) 'Vipak vichaya' - (A) Pleasure - pain take place due to rise of Karma such kind of thinking, is 'Vipak vichaya Dharma Dhyana'.
(B) Living beings get fruits of their virtuous or sinful acts in one or in many births, thinking its (the fruit of karma) rise, premature fruition, transition of karmic nature, bond, salvation, is 'Vipak vichaya Dharma Dhyana'. (Moolachar, 401)
(4) 'Samsthan vichaya' - Thinking of the structure and measurement etc. of all the three divisions of the universe is 'Samsthan vichaya Dharma Dhyana'. (Savartha Siddhi, 9/36/ 890)
6. What are ten kinds of Dharmaya Dhyana ?
1. Aajñã Vichaya, 2. Apaya Vichaya, 3. Upaya Vichaya, 4. Jeeva Vichaya, 5. Ajeeva Vichaya, 6. Bhava Vichaya, 7. Vipaka Vichaya, 8. Viraga Vichaya, 9. Hetu Vichaya,, 10. Sansthan Vichaya (Bhava Pahuda Teeka, 119)
7. What are kinds of Sansthana Vichaya Dharmaya Dhyana ?
The Sansthan Vichaya Dharmaya Dhyana is of four kinds -
(A) Pindastha Dhyana - Contemplation about the soul present in the body, is the meditation on soul (Pindastha Dhyana) It is of five kinds -
1. Prathivi Dharna (Earthly retention) - The adept, sitting on the lonely place, should think that this world is deep ocean, it is filled with water, this world is full of griefs, lotuses of heaven ,etc. sensual pleasures are blooming here & there, in the middle there is one thousand - petalled lotus and just in the centre of it the Sumeru mountain is situated. There is one seat on it and I am seated on it.
2. Agneya Dharna (Fiery retention) - Further, the adept contemplates that one lotus with 16 petals is ensconced in his navel zone on which अ (a), etc. 16 vowel alphabets are written in sequence. The great incantation Hram (), is gracing it with its presence in the pericarp of the lotus from which pointed flame of smoke is emitting slowly and gradually, the fiery particles (spark) too began to emit along with the smoke. These sparks arranged in a row slowly and gradually transforming into burning flames have caught the fuel of Karmas, now the forest of Karmas began to burn slowly afterwards the Nokarma (body ,etc.) too began to burn and all are reduced to ashes.
3. Vayu Dharna (Airy retentio) - After it the meditator contemplates that very violent swift and fast wind is blowing trembling the mountains and it immediately flown the ash-dust of the body & Karmas and it is now quieted.
4. Jala Dharna (Watery retention) - After it the meditator contemplates that the dense clouds are raining cats and dogs accompanied by lightening and rainbow. This water washes out the entire ash produced due to burning of the body.
5. Tattvaroopvati Dharna (Auspicious conceptual meditationretention) - Afterwards the meditator should contemplate his ownself free from seven primary substances (blood, flesh etc.), radiant like full moon of the 15th day of light half of the lunar month, ensconced on the throne, accompanied by divine excellences, endowed with grandeur of auspicious benedictory events (Kalyanakas) worshipped by human & celestial beings and is free from blemish of Karmas, afterwards should contemplate that the soul placed in his body is male-shaped and has become free from the eight Karmas.
(B) Padastha Dhyana - Meditation adhering to Mantras -
1. The meditation which is done pronouncing pious verses beginning from incantation of one alphabet to many types signifying Panch Parmeshthi (five supreme divinities), is called Padastha Dhyana ,e.g. 'Om' 'Hrim' ,etc.
2. Great ascetics contemplate taking support of which alphabetical verses of many pious / sacred incantations, is called Padastha Dhyana. Inscribing the Mantra on some fixedspot, like the fore-front of the nose or the middle of the eyebrows concentrates the mind looking at it. Eight petalled-lotus should be contemplated and on the five out of eight leaves should contemplate as written Namo Arihantanam, Namo Siddhanam, Namo Airiyanam, Namo Uvajjayanam, Namo Loe Savvsahunam, णमो अरिहंताणं, णमो सिद्धाणं, णमो आइरियाणं, णमो उवज्झायाणं, णमो लोए सव्व साहूणं and on remaining three leaves Samyag Darshanaya Namah, Samyag Gyanaya Namah, Samyag Charitraya Namah (सम्यग्दर्शनाय नम:, सम्यग्ज्ञानाय नम:, सम्यकचरित्राय नम:), written should be contemplated. Similarly all the 24 Teerthakaras from Teerthankara Rishabhdeva to Mahaveer are contained in the essenceful mystic & chanting word 'Hrim' (ह्रीं) with their respective colours, should contemplate them.
(C) Roopastha Dhyana (Deep concentration on the form of Lord Arihanta) - The contemplation of the image of the Lord Arihanta ensconced in the Samavsharan, is Roopastha Dhyana. In this meditation the passionless form/image of the Lord Arihanta ensconced in the centre of twelve assemblies, endowed with four excellences and eight auspicious emblems is contemplated.
(D) Roopatita Dhyana (formless Meditation) - In this meditation, the meditator contemplating the virtues of the liberated soul (Siddha Parmesthi) meditates that the liberated souls are intangible, will not take birth in future, not able to be perceived by the senses. Again that Yogi (Muni) contemplates precisely, his own soul as pure, enlightened, awakened, untainted, dispassionate like the supreme soul (Parmatma). I am indeed Omniscient, Omnipresent Siddha, contemplating so he meditates his own pure soul. In this way the adept practising the meditation of Siddha Parmeshthi in the Roopatita Dhyana and also considering himself like the Siddha with regard to the inherent power of the soul and for expressing him-self like the Siddha, absorbs in his own-self, then destroying the Karmas by his own-self, becomes Siddha Parmeshthi in expressed form.
8. At how many places of the body the Mantras are installed for meditation ?
The Mantras should be installed for meditation on the following parts of the body - 1. Both the eyes, 2. Both the ears, 3. Front part of the nose, 4. Fore-head, 5. Mouth, 6. Navel, 7. Head, 8. Heart, 9. Palate, 10 Centre portion of both the eye-brows. The meditable (the object to meditated) should be installed in any one of the above ten places (Iñãnarnava, 30/13)
9. False believers are also seen observing Dharam Dhyana ?
Here the topic / context is of path of salvation and the path of salvation (Moksha Marga) does not begin without right belief. Hence the existence of right faith is indispensable for Dharma Dhyana. The meditation of the false-believers is called auspicious disposition.
10. What is the difference among Dhyana, Anupreksha (reflection), Bhavna and Chinta?
The stable thought activity, is Dhyana (meditation) and unsteadiness/wavering of mind from one object to the others, is either Bhavna (feeling) or Anupreksha (reflexion) or Chinta (thinking). Here, Chinta means thinking. “चिन्तनं चिंता" (Chintnam Chinta).(Sarvartha Siddhi, 1/13/182)
11. What is 'Shukla Dhyana'? and what are its kind ?
Concentration occurring in the utmost purity of mind is 'Shukla Dhyana'. It is of four types
(1) 'Prthaktvavitarka vichar' - The support or base of which is different object of concentration, (i.e. Prathaka-Prathaka-Artha), the verbal expression or word, (i.e. Vyanjna), shifting of vibratory activity of mind, speech and body ,(i.e. Yoga samkranti) and scripture (Shruta), is 'Prthaktvavitarka vichar dhyana', i.e. absorption in meditation of the SELF, but unconsciously allowing its different attributes to replace one another.
Vitarka = Shruta Jñãn (knowledge of scripture)
Vichar = Samkranti (shifting or change)
Samkranti is of three kinds - 'Artha Samkranti', 'Vyanjana Samkranti' and 'Yoga Samkranti'.
(i) 'Artha Samkranti', i.e. object shifting - shifting object of meditation ,i.e. passing from substance to mode and from mode to substance, during meditational phase.
(ii) 'Vyanjana Samkranti' - 'Vyanjana' is verbal expression or word. Taking support of one scriptural term then support of another scriptural term is taken and again leaving it also taking support of yet another scriptural term, is 'Vyanjana Samkranti'. In other words passing from one scriptural term to another and from that to another.
(iii) 'Yoga Samkranti' - Yoga Samkranti is changing from vibratory activity of mind to vibratory activity of verbal expression and again leaving it also, adopting bodily activity. (Raj Vartika, 9/44)
(2) 'Ekatvavitarka Avichar' - The Shukla dhyana which occurs with any one of the three vibratory activities and without shifting of object, verbal expression and vibratory activity of body, is 'Ekatvavitarka Avichar Shukla Dhyana', i.e. single scriptural concentration. (Sarvartha Siddhi, 9/40/898)
(3) 'Sukshmakriya pratipati' - When the duration of 'Ayu Karma' (age determining karma) of an Omniscient possessing physical presence (Syoga Kevali) remains with in one 'Antarmuhurta' (i.e. 48 minutes) then he gives up entirely the activities of the mind, speech organs and gross bodily activity and depends only on slight bodily activity, only then 'Sukshmakriya-pratipati Dhyana' comes into being.
Suksma=micro, kriya=Vibratory activity, Pratipati not falling back ,i.e. goes precisely up wards. (Sarvartha Siddhi, 9/44/906)
(4) 'Vyuparatakriya nivartti' - (i.e. No yoga or vibratory activity of mind, speech or body)
'Vyuparatakriya nivartti' - Vi+uprata+kriya+Anivrtti, i.e. In which specially the vibratory activities have been completely alienated (dispelled), that is 'Vyupratakriya' and 'Vyupratakriya nivrtti dhyana' is that which consists of both the 'Vyupratakriya' and 'Anivrtti' (Abstinence from attachment to external objects),i.e. concentration which takes place in the state free from vibrating activity of mind, speech and body, is called 'Vyupratakriya nivrtti dhyana'. (Tatvartha Sutra, 9/39)
12. What is the fruit of meditation ?
The fruit of painful and cruel concentration, is world and that of the Dharma Dhyana & Shukla Dhyana, is salvation.
13. What are four ingredients / chapters (Adhikar) about meditation ?
14. What sort of meditator should be ?
He should be of the observer of five rules of moral conduct, i.e. should be free from five sins. Keeping silence is beneficial in meditation. What sort of silence should be ? It should be by mind, speech and body, i.e. no inclination to speak should arise in the mind, not uttering even 'hum' and 'haw' by words, also not doing any thing by body, i.e. neither alluding nor showing by writing, should take food once in a day that too in limited quantity and the food should be genuine (pure) and food material should not be more fried, should not contain more chillies, spices and heavy (indigestible) food-stuff. No public contact, should be controller of mind and should be able to subdue his senses, his posture should be stable, should be steadfast (resolute) ,i.e. should not flinch in times of calamity. Such kind of meditator has been praised in scriptures.
15 Which are the suitable places for meditation ?
Suitable places for meditation are mountain, cave, hollow of the tree, bank of the river, cremation or burial-ground, park, forest, shore of the ocean, confluence of rivers, place from where virtuous souls got salvation, i.e.Siddh Kshetra, place where some miracles or excellence happened, i.e. Atisaya Kshetra, place of pilgrimage ,etc. such place should be free from woman, animal, eunuch and men of bad character (Raj Vartika 9/44). But there is no such rule for capable competant persons, they can meditate at any place.
16. Which directions and postures are suitable for meditation ?
Meditating facing east or north direction, is praiseworthy. The sun rises in the east which proves pernicious (destructive) for darkness, therefore, east direction is laudable. Our works (purpose) should be progressive day by day like the rise of the sun, desiring so, people perform meditation, etc. desired works facing east direction.
Teerthankaras are found at all times in Videha Kshetra. Videha Kshetra is in north direction, therefore, assuming ensconcing Teerthankara in heart, meditation ,etc. desired acts are performed facing north direction. (Bhagwati Aradhna commentary, 562)
Lotus posture or Kayotsarga (spiritual or meditative relaxation) posture is best. A meditator sitting in an uneven posture necessarily feels pain due to which the mind is oppressed owing to which he gets distressed (agitated). Whether meditation is possible in the state of agitation ? No. therefore, meditation should be undertaken in the above two postures. (J.S.K., 2/135)
Special attention - There is no such rule of direction and posture for capable persons. Illustrations of Meditation -
(1) When you go to see the cinema, then doors, windows, holes, etc. of the picture-hall are closed and the electric current of the inner portion of the cinema hall is also switched off. Then the scenes are clearly visible on the screen. Similarly we close the doors, windows holes of senses at the very first instance for seeing the Self, then electric current of intentions and hesitation of mind is switched off, only then the inner picture ,i.e. self-intution is seen (introspection takes place).
(2) There are three hands in the watch ,i.e. of hour, minute and of second. The hand of the hour (which shows the time in hours) moves but doesn't seen as moving likewise hand of the minute moves but doesn't seen as moving but the hand of the second not only moves but gallops. Similarly we all possess three vibratory activities. Bodily vibration is like the hand of hour, vibratory activity of the speech is like the hand of the minute and the vibratory activity of mind is like the hand of the second. When we sit in meditation then body and speech become stable but the mind runs. All the three hands meet at 12 O'clock and the hand of the second immediately runs away from there - when the hand of the hour and the hand of the minute labour / effort much then all the three meet at 1.05, 2.10 hours and so on. Similarly, when we engross in meditation for hours together then the mind, speech and body becomes stable but only for a moment and the mind immediately slips away from there. It is also essential for meditation that we should not think of so many coming years. For the purpose of practice, we will not think of the events which may happen after one year ,then which are to happen after one month ,then after one fort-night, then after one week ,then after one day, then one hour and by and by come at one 'Samaya'. This is also an art for concentration.
17. How many kinds of meditations occur in one to four-sensed beings and irrational five-sensed beings ?
Two meditation occur - painful & cruel concentration.
18. How many meditations occur to five-sensed beings ?
All meditation occur to the five-sensed beings.