1. What is Samyagdarshana (Right Faith)?
To have faith in the true Deity, Scripture and Guru without three stupidities (Murhta) and eight arrogances (Mada) but with eight limbs (qualities), is Samyagdarshana'(Right Faith).
2. What is the definition of Samyagdarshana according to four expositions (Anuyoga) of Jain scriptures ?
- 'Prathamanuyoga' (Biographical exposition related to Jain - Lords and great personalities) - To have faith in true Deity, Scriptures and Guru, the preceptors.
- Karnanuyoga (Scriptures which deals with the structure and constitution of the universe) - The auspicious feeling of reverential belief in suppression, destruction and destruction cum-suppression of seven configurations (characteristics) of Karmic nature (Karama Prakriti).
- Charananuyoga (Scriptures dealing with principles of prescribed conduct for shravakas and saints) - To have feeling of 'Prasama', i.e. spiritual calmness, 'Samvega', i.e. to have fear of the sufferings of worldly life, 'Anukampa', i.e. feeling of compassion, and 'Astikaya', i.e. firm faith in religion. Having such wisdom that there is existence of Jeeva, etc. mattersubstances.
- Dravyanuyoga ,(i.e. scriputures or expositions dealing with substances and metaphyics) - Belief in reality ascertained as it is, is right faith i.e, 'Samyagdarshana'.
3. What are the kinds of Samyagdarshana ?
Two kinds -
- 'Sarag Samyagdarshana' (Right faith / perception with auspicious attachment).
- 'Veetraga Samyagdarshana', (i.e. Right faith without any attachment).
(1) 'Sarag Samyagdarshana' -
(i) Right faith with great affection for religion ,is Sarag Samyagdarshana'.
(ii) Its main characteristic is the expression of spiritual calmness, fearful feeling from worldly life, compassion and firm faith in religion. (Shri Dhavla Book, 1/4/152)
(A) Spiritual calmness (Prasama), absence of intensity towards passions and attachments.
(B) Fearful feeling from worldly life (Samvega), i.e remaining fearful of the worldly life.
(C) Compassion (Anukampa) To have friendly feeling towards each and every living being.
(D) Firm faith in religion (Astikya) To have the wisdom which believes that Jiva, etc. are matter-substance and they do exist.
(2) 'Veetraga Samyagdarshana' - Passionless and attachmentless 'Samyagdarshana', is 'Veetrag Samyagdarshana'. It is invariable concomitant of 'Veetraga Charitra'. Here hormony exists between faith and conduct.
Example - Ramchandra Ji was a man of right faith. When Seetaji was kidnapped, he searches for Seetaji. He inquires, from tree, river ,etc. the whereabouts of Seetaji. On the other hand, when he immerses in pure conscious thoughtful activity (Suddhopayoga) in the state of Muni and the Jiva of Seetaji thinks that their mutual relation with each other had been for many births and if he remains immersed in such kind of meditation then he would attain salvation before her (the Jiva of Seetaji). Therefore, the right-believer Jiva of Seetaji causes affliction on Muni Ram but Ramchandraji did not deviate from meditation. Now think Ramchandraji was a right-believer before becoming Muni and also a right-believer in the state of Muni, then what is the difference (in both the situations) ?, the difference was - formerly it was right-belief but with attachment, there was difference between faith and conduct, therefore, he was searching for Seetaji, hence, it was a 'Sarag Samyagdarshana'. When he became Muni then he attained harmony between faith and conduct and became attachmentless right-believer, so he remained enduring affliction caused by the Jiva of Seetaji and attained Omniscience. It is 'Veetraga Samyagdarshana'.
4. What is 'Vyavhara Samyagdarshana 'and 'Nischaya Samyagdarshana' ?
To have faith in the nature of pure Jiva ,etc. Tattvas ,i.e. realities, is right-faith from the practical point of view ('Vyavhara'), i.e. faith with attachment or affection towards the Lord, Scripture and Guru and in pure seven Tattvas. And right-faith without any attachments ,(i.e. Veetraga Samyakatva) alongwith possessionless conduct ,(i.e. Veetraga charitra), is Nischaya Samyakatva (Absotute perception or belief). ,i.e. 'Nischaya Samyakatva' can not take place without 'Veetraga charitra'.
5. What are the kinds of 'Samyagdarshana' with regard to its origination ?
It is two kinds - (1) Nisargaja (2) Adhigamaja
(1) Nisargaja - Nisargaja Samyagdarshana (independent perception of right-faith) which originates without teaching of others but by visiting and paying reverence to the idols of Lord Arihanta, intense feeling of pain, perception of auspicious benedictory events of Lord Jinendra (Panch Kalyanaka etc.), is called Nisargaja Samyagdarshana.
(2) Adhigamaja - That which is attained by teaching of of others-Guru, etc., is 'Adhigamja Samyagdarshana,' i.e. right faith occurring from teachimg by others.
6. What is the internal cause in 'Nisargaja' and 'Adhigamaja'?
In both kinds of the right-faith the internal cause is the same, namely the suppression, destruction or destruction-cum-suppression of wrong belief (Mithyatva), right-cum-wrong faith (Samyag Mithyatva), Karmic natures causing slackness in right belief (Samyaka Prakriti) and the four passions leading to endless mundane existence (Anantanubandhi Chatuska). (Tattvartha Sutra, 1/3))
7. What are the kinds of 'Samyagdarshana" with regard to internal cause ?
It is of three kinds -
- 'Upsama Samyagdarshana' (Origination of right faith due to suppression of Karma).
- 'Kshayopasama Samyagdarshana' (Destruction-cum-suppression of Karmas).
- 'Kshayika Samyagdarshana' (The pure irrevocable right-belief after destruction of faith - deluding Karma).
8. What are the kinds of 'Upsama Samyagdarshana'?
It is of two kinds -
- 'Prathamopsama Samyagdarshana'.
- 'Dvitiyopasama Samyagdarshana'.
(1) 'Prathamopsama Samyagdarshana" (First suppression right belief) - The right belief which originates in a wrong believer due to suppression of seven types of Karmic natures, viz. three species of karmic nature of faith-deluding karma, i.e. wrong belief (Mithyatva), mixed right and wrong belief (Samyak Mithyatva), Karmic nature causing slackness in right belief (Samyakatva Prakriti) and intense/infinite passions of anger, pride, deceitfulness and greed, leading to endless mundane-existance, is prathopsama Samyagdarshana. It occurs in being of all the four body-forms.
(2) 'Dvitiyopasama Samyagdarshana'- The 'Upsama Samyagdarshana'(suppressional right belief) which occurs after destruction-cum-suppression right belief (i.e Kshyopsama Samyagdarshana), is called Dvitiyopsama Samyagdarsana. It also arises from suppression of seven types of Karmic natures. If a Muni of the seventh stage of spiritual development (Saptam Gunasthanvarti) ascends suppressional ladder (progression) then he necessarily attains either 'Kshayika Samyagdarshana'(Irrevocable right belief after destruction of faith - deluding Karmas) or 'Dvitiyopsama Samyagdarshana'(second suppressional right-faith).
Speciality - According to other Acharyas 'Dvitiyopsama Samyagdarshana' is attained by Kshyopsama Samyagdrasti who is a possessor of the fourth stage of spiritual development to the seventh stage of spiritual development., (i.e. 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th stage of spiritual development). (Shri Dhavla, 1/27/211, Kartikeyanupreksha, 484 Teeka, Moolachar, 205 Teeka)
9. Which 'Samyagdarsana' a Jiva' attains for the very first time?
10. Who can attain 'Prathopsama' and 'Dvitiyopsama' Samyagdarshana ?
'Prathopsama Samyagdarshana' - Only wrong believers who are five sensed with mind, possess all 'Paryaptis' and are born by uterus or by instantaneous birth, (i.e. infernal or celestial beings) can attain Prathopsama Samyagdarshana and not five sensed with mind but are born by spontaneous generation can attain it.
'Dvitiyopsama Samyagdarshana' - Only 'Muni' with Kshayopsama Samyagdarshana or men of 'Karam bhumi' with Kshayopsama Samyagdarshana who have reached to the 4th stage of spiritual development to the 7th stage of spiritual development, can attain Dvitiyopsama Samyagdarshana. Dwellers of Bhogabhumi cannot attain it.
(The false believer from beginningless time suppresses 5 natures (configuration) and the one who after attaining the right-faith, is degraded from it suppresses 5, 6 or 7 natures.)
11. What is difference between Prathamopsama and Dvittiyopsama right belief?
12. What is Kshayopsama Samyagdarshana ?
The Samyagdarshana which arises from destruction without their fruition and suppression of six types of Karmic natures, viz.-four passion leading to endless mundane existence, i.e. anger, pride, deceitfulness and greed, wrong belief (Mithyatva) and mixed right and wrong belief (Samyaga Mithyatva) and rise of Karmic nature causing slackness in right belief (Samyak Prakriti), is called Kshayopsama Samyagdarshana.
13. Who are entitled to attain Kshayopsame Samgdarshan ?
Wrong believers of all the four body-forms who are five sensed with consciousness, i.e. with mind, completely developed (whose all organs are fully developed), are born by uterus or by instantaneous birth or by spontaneous generation can attain it. It is also attained by right believers having first suppressional right belief, second suppressional right belief and right cum-wrong believers.
14. What is 'Kshayika Samyagdarsana' (The pure irrevocable right belief after destruction of faith deluding Karma)? The 'Samyagdarshana' which arises on destruction of seven types of Karmic natures, is 'Kshayika Samyagdarshana'.
15. Who can attain Kshyika Samyagdarshana ?
Only man of Karma-bhumi (land of action) who is destructional-cum-suppressional right believer can attain Kshayika Samyagdarshana in the proximity of Omniscient (Kevali)/Scriptural Omnicient (shruta-Kevali), i.e. well-versed in entire scriptural knowledge.
16. If Kshayika Samyagdarshan is attained only by human being then how Kshayika Samyagdrishti ,(i.e. right believer after annihilation of faith deluding Karma) are found in all the four body-forms ?
The human being who has bonded the age of hell, Tiryancha or human being and afterwards has attained Kshayika Samyagdarshan, he, after death will only become infernal being of the first hell or Tiryanch or human being of the Bhogbhumi, who has bonded the age of celestial being or has not bonded any age, then he will as a rule, go to the celestial body form and will be a Vaimanika Deva. Thus Kshayika Samyagdrishthi are found in all the body forms. (R.KS., 35)
17. Maximum how many births a Kshayika-right-believer can attain salvation, the final emancipation ?
In four births - First human birth in which Kshayika Samyagdarshana was attained, second human or Tiryanch of Bhogbhumi, third is celestial body-form and in fourth, having been born as man of Karam-bhumi, will attain salvation.
18. What is the duration of all the three kinds of right belief?
19. Well, out of three Samyagdarshana, how many are Sarag & Veetraga ?
Kshayopsam Samyagdarshana is Sarag and the remaining two are both Sarag & Veetraga Samyagdarshana.
20. How many Samyagdarshana are 'Nisargaja' and 'Adhigamaj' among all the three ?
All the three right beliefs, are 'Nisargaja' and also Adhigamaj.
21. 'Kshayika Samyagdarshana' is attained in the proximity of Kevli, Shrut Kevli (Omniscient, Scriptural Omniscient) hence, it is 'Adhigamaja' How is it 'Nisargaja'?
The beings who after coming out of the second or third hell become Teerthankara, they do not need other's teaching for attaining irrevocable right-belief after destruction of faith deluding Karma (Kshayika Samyagdarshana) on the other hand, they attain 'Kshayika Samyagdarshana' without teachings by others. Therefore, here 'Kshayika Samyagdarshana' becomes 'Nisargaja'.
22. What are other causes in attaining 'Samyagdarsana' ?
Following are the causes :
- Jatismarana - Recollection of the memories of past births.
- Dharamasravana - By listening to the preachings of learned, Muni, etc.
- Jinabimba Darsana - By visiting and paying reverence to the idols of Lord Arihanta. Visiting Sammed Shikhar Ji, Urjayantaji, Champapurji, pavapurji and super-saints (Labadhisampanna Risi) are also included in 'Jinbimba Dasrshan'.
- Vednanubhava - By experiencing the painful results of some wrong doings, i.e. intense feeling of pain.
- Devarddhi Darsana - Seeing the supernatural powers of other celestial beings of higher status than one's own-self.
- Jinmahima Darsana - Perception/seeing of excellences (benedictory auspicious events) of Lord Jinendra, i.e. Panch-Kalyanakas of Teerthankaras.
23. Out of above six causes through which causes and in which body-forms the Samyagdarshana is attained ?
In Hellish body-forms: By Jatismaran, Dharam Shravana (up to 3rd earth) and Vednanubhava.
In Tiryanch & Human body-forms : Jatismaran, Dharam Shravana & Jinbimbdarshan.
Speciality - Jinmahima is included in Jinbimbdarshana.
Celestial body-forms: By Jatismaran, Devardhidarshana(up to 12th heaven), Dharam Shravana, Jinmahima Darshan (up to 16th heaven).
In Nav Graiveyaka : By Jatismaran & Dharam Shravana.
In Nav Anudish & in Five Anuttras : They are already Samyagdristhi. (Rajvartika, 2/312)
In Bhogbhumi: By Jatismaran & Dharam Shravana (Through instructing by celestial deities and preaching of Muni endowed with supernatural power of moving in the sky (Charanriddhi dhari Muni)).
24. Which are ten kinds of Samyagdarshana ?
- Aagya Samyagdarshana - Obedience right faith : The faith in reality (Tattva) manifested merely by faith in the preachings of the attachmentless Lord Jina, is Aagya Samyagdarshana.
- Marga Samyagdarshana - Path of right faith (Right attitude towards path of salvation) Without listening to scriptures, to have unshakable faith in the path of salvation, knowing that beneficial, is Marga Samyagdarshana.
- Updesha Samyagdarshana - Instructional-right faith : The right faith / faith in reality generated through listening to the life stories of 63 Shalaka Personages, is Updesha Samyagdarshana.
- Sutra Samyagdarshana - Aphorism-right faith : The right faith manifested due to listening to the holy scriptures explaining the conduct and daily routine of ascetics, is Sutra Samyagdarshana.
- Beej Samyagdarshana - Compendious right faith : The right faith generated on hearing of Beej pada, i.e. essenceful groups of words used for acquiring infinite knowledge, is Beej Samyagdarshana.
- Sankshepa Samyagdarshana - Brief right faith : The right faith gained through knowing the nature of Jeeva, etc. matter substances only in brief, is Sankshepa Samyagdarshana.
- Vistar Samyagdarshana - Extensive right faith : The Bhavya Jeeva who becomes believer in reality (Tattva Shriddhani) by listening to 12 limbs of scriptures, is called Vistar Samyagdarshana.
- Artha Samyagdarshana - Core-sense right faith : The right faith gained on grasping only the core sense of the scriptures without detailed interpretation, is Artha Samyagdarshana.
- Avgaarh Samyagdarshana - Deep right faith : The right faith of the scriptural omniscient (great ascetic well-versed in all scriptures ,i.e.Shrutkevali), is Avgaarh Samyagdarshana.
- Parmavgaarh Samyagdarshana - Supreme profound right faith : The right faith of the omniscient, is Parmaavgarh Samyagdarshana.:(R. V., 3/36)
25. Which are the 25 faults of Right-belief ?
3 Ignorances or follies (Murhata), 8 pride (Mada), 6 perversities (Anayatama) and 8 suspicions (Sanka),etc. faults (contrary to 8 limb of right faith), these 25 are faults of Samyagdarshana.
26. What is 'Murhata' and what are its kinds ?
Indiscriminating/imprudent actions which impute faults to Samyagdarshana, is 'Murhata' (stupidity). It is of 3 kinds -
- Lok Murhata (superstition) - Bathing into the ocean, rivers regarding it a religious performance, making a heap of sand, falling down from the mountain, burning in the fire ,etc. is 'Loka Murhata', i.e. false traditional or false ritualistic belief.
- Deva Murhata (believing false deities) - Worshipping goddes-gods who are filled with attachment and aversion, being enchanted with desires for getting desired fruits, is Deva Murhata.
- Guru Murhata (Belief in false preceptor) - Worshipping, rendering hospitable treament to false saints who are immersed in commencement, etc. violent activities (Arambha), attachment to belongings, violence, fear and in activities which cause to sink into the world, is Guru Murhata.
27. What is 'Mada'? And how many are they ?
To have egoism, pride, arrogance, is 'Mada'. It is of eight kinds - 'Jñãna Mada', 'Puja Mada', 'Kula Mada', 'Jati Mada', 'Bala Mada', 'Riddhi Mada', 'Tapa Mada' and 'Rupa Mada'.
- Gyan Mada (Puff/pride of knowledge) - "I have so much knowledge that I can tell the page number and its contents of the great treatises like Shri Dhavla, Jai Dhavla" but he does not know even the body-form of one sensed beings. Such types of utterances ,is 'Gyan Mada'.
- Puja Mada (Proud related to respect or prominence)- "I am honoured, I am respected in every house, even abroad but you are not respected even at your own home what to say in the city" Such utterance ,is 'Puja Mada'.
- Kula Mada (Family-puff)- "I belong to the family in which many members took 'Muni' & 'Aryika' initiation and you belong to the family in which no member renounced even night eating" Such utterance ,is 'Kula Mada'.
- Jati Mada (Pride of caste) - "My mother took birth in that family in which moral conduct is always followed but your mother comes from the family of no moral conduct even a little" Such utterance ,is 'Jati Mada'.
- Bala Mada (Pride of possessing strength) - "I have so much strength that I can defeat even hundreds of men in the battle and you have no strength even to overcome a fly" Such utterance, is 'Bala Mada'.
- Riddhi Mada (Pride of possessing super-natural power) - "I possess many kinds of supernatural powers. Wherever my feet appear the diseases, famines, epidemics ,etc. disappear and you possess no such supernatural power" Telling such words, is 'Riddhi Mada'. Having pride of wealth is also included in the Riddhi Mada.
- Tapa Mada (Pride of austerity) - "I am a great ascetic. I observe atleast ten fasts in a month but you go to take food daily" Such utterance, is 'Tapa Mada'.
- Rupa Mada (Pride of beauty-puff) - "I am very handsome, beautiful, look like a Kamdeva (god of Love) even without cream-powder but you are quite black and Аstabakra (crippled in eight limbs)" Such utterance ,is 'Rupa Mada'.
28. What is 'Anayatana' (perversity or wrong perception) ?
'Ayatana' means 'place'. Here the word 'Ayatana' is used in the context of religion therefore, its meaning is 'place of religion' contrary to it place of irreligion or impiety, is 'Anayatana'.
'Anayatana' are six - 'Kuguru' (a teacher or preacher with bad conduct), 'Kuguru Sevaka' (a follower of Kuguru), 'Kudeva' (False deity), 'Kudeva Sevaka' (follower of false deity), 'Kudharma' (false religion), 'Kudharma Sevaka' (follower of irreligion), not eulogizing, not showing devotion, not serving these six either with mind or speech or with body. If one eulogizes, worships or serves these six then it is fault in Samyagdarshana.
29. What are 'Sanka' etc. eight faults/infirmities (of Samyagdarshana)?
- Shanka - Non-belief in elements / realities as propogated by 'Jinendra Deva'.
- Kanksha - Desiring mundane enjoyments and pleasures by following the religion.
- Vichikitsa - Feeling disgust on seeing the unclean bodies of the Muni who are possessors of tri-jewels.
- Murha dristhi - Consenting by mind, eulogizing by words and serving by body the wrong path and followers of wrong path.
- Anupguhan - Disclosing the faults of religious persons.
- Asthikaran - Not reestablishing people in the religion who are deviated/derailed from the path of religion.
- Avatsalya - To slander co-religious fellow, not having affection towards them.
- Aprabhavna - To cause infamy to the discipline of Jainism by one's wrong conduct ,i.e. not glorifying and not propogating the religion of Jina by one's own-good-conduct.
Note - These doubts ,etc. are the eight infirmities of 'Samyagdarshana', opposite to these 'Nihshankit' (doubtlessness about preaching of Lord Jina), 'Nihkankshita' (desirelessness for worldly comforts), 'Nirvichikitsa' (freeness from any disgust on viewing excreta ,etc. of saints), 'Amurhadristi' (non-foolish perception/infallible outlook/freedom from superstitions), 'Upguhana' (safeguarding/not disclosing others faults), 'Stithikaran' (re-establishing those in religion who have been deviated from religion), 'Vatsalya' (affection towards co-religious fellows), and 'Prabhavna' (glorifying and propogating preaching and religion of Lord Jina), are limbs or qualities of 'Samyagdarshana'.
30. Which are the eight virtues of Samyagdarshana ?
- Samvega - Always fearing with the sufferings of transmigration or keeping affection to wards religion.
- Nirvegs - Non-attachment towards sensual pleasure.
- Ninda - Slandering one's own faults.
- Garha - Disclosing one's own faults before the Guru.
- Upsama - Quieting anger ,etc. perversions.
- Bhakti - Devotion / affection towards Panch Parmeshthi, i.e. five supreme divinities.
- Vatsalya - To have affection towards co-religious fellows.
- Anukampa - Having compassion on all the living beings. (Charitrasar Shravakachar, 7)
31. Where the right-beliver does not born ?
The right-believer is not born as infernal being, Tiryamcha, Bhavanatrika 'Deva', (i.e. 'Vyantar', 'Jyotiska' and 'Bhavanvasi' deva),neuter, of famine gender, of low caste group, physically disabled, of short life, one sensed, vikalchatuska ,(i.e. 2, 3, 4 sensed) and a being without mind ,i.e. Asamjni) and as a poverty-sticken person.
Note : Samyagdristi can also become infernal being and Tiryamcha, as has been clarified in question No. 16.
32. What advantages a right-believer gets ?
A 'Samyagadristi' (right-believer) gets the high rank among celestial beings, high status among human beings ,i.e. of 'Chakravarti' and even of 'Teerthankara', etc.
33. What is the distinguishing mark of a Samyagadristi ?
Acharya Nemichandraji tells in the 'Jeeva Kand' -
मिच्छंतं वेदंतो जीवो विवरीयदंसणो होदि ।
ण य धम्मं रोचेदि हु महुरं खु रसं जहा जरिदो ।।
- The living being who experiences wrong faith, has opposite reverential belief in substances, i.e. not ascertains them as they are instead he ascertains them as something else, for instance,
- Just as a man, suffering from Jaundice, does not feel even the sweet juice as tasty, similarly true religion does not seem pleasant to a wrong-believer. That is to say, it is clear from this 'gatha' (csouplet) that to whom religion is agreeable or pleasing, he is a rightbeliever because to a person suffering from jaundice of wrong faith, the religion is not agreeable to him.
- Those are also right-believers who do not slander others do not praise of them-selves, because who slander others alongwith their own praise, they binds low Gotra and low caste is bonded only up to the second stage of spiritual development. Therefore, a person who slander others and praises one's own-self can not be a right-believer.
34. Which 'Samyagdarshana' generates from which 'Samyagdarshana'?
From first 'suppressor Samyagdarrshana' - 'Kshyopsam Samyagdarshana'.
From second 'suppressor Samyagdarshana' - 'Kshyopsam Samyagdarshana'.
From 'Kshyopsama Samyagdarshana' - Second Upsamsamyagdarshana and 'Kshayika Samyagdarshana'.
From Kshayika Samyagdarshana - None 'Samyagdarshana' is manifested.
35. What are the synonymous names for 'Samyagdarshana' ?
Right faith ('Sraddha'), reverence ('Astha'), liking ('Ruchi'), belief ('Pratiti'),etc.