1. What is Universe (Loka) ?
That beginningless and genuine/natural middle part of the infinite space in which six substances (living being/organism ,etc.) are found (exist), is called 'Loka' (universe).
2. What is the structure of the universe ?
(1) Take three glasses, put one upside down, i.e. back to front, put second glass straight on it, again put the third glass on the second upside down, the shape thus made, is the structure of the universe.
(2) The structure of this universe is some-what resembling a man standing with arms akimbo and legs apart, the shape thus made, is the structure of the universe.
(3) The shape of the universe is somewhat similar to that 'Mahastoopa' built in the church of Egypt. (J. S. Kosh 3/438).
3. What is the dimension of the universe ?
The dimension of the universe everywhere in south-north direction is 7 'Raju' thick, the dimension in east-west is 7 'Raju' in lower side, decreasing gradually towards upperside up to middle universe is one 'Raju', thereafter increasing gradually it becomes 5 'Raju' in 'Brhmaloka', again it decreases gradually till it becomes one'Raju'in breadth at the end of the universe. Thus total height of the universe is 14 'Raju'. The cubic capacity of the whole universe is the cube of 7 'Raju', i.e. 7 x 7 x 7 = 343 cubic Raju.
4. What is 'Raju'?
A round lump of 1000 kilogram heavy weight being fallen from the 'Indraloka' down towards earth and the distance it covers in six months that distance is equal to one'Raju'. This is the definition of scriptures. As regards general definition, one "Raju'is equal to innumberable 'Yojana'.
5. In how many 'Raju' the lower universe (Adholoka) exists and who live there?
'Adholoka' exists in 7 'Raju'. Seven earths (hells) exist in six 'Raju'. There is empty space between one and the second earth and also in subsequent earths - measuring some less innumerable Yojans. Above all there is Ratanprabha earth which is divided into three parts - 'Khara Bhaga', 'Pank Bhaga' and 'Abbahula Bhaga'. The 'Khara Bhaga' is 16000 Yojana thick, residences of 'Bhavan Vasi' and 'Vyantaras' exist in it. Nine types of 'Bhavan Vasi' save 'Asurkumar' and seven kinds of 'Vyantara' save 'Rakshasa' reside here. The 'Panka Bhaga' is 84,000 Yojana thick, 'Asurkumar' deities of 'Bhavan Vasi Devas' and 'Rakshasa' deities of 'Vyantaras' reside here. 'Abbahula Bhaga' is 80,000 Yojana thick. Infernal beings live here. Thus the thickness of the first earth is 1,80,000 Yojana. The thickness of the second Sarkara earth is 32,000 Yojana, of the third Baluka prabha 28,000 Yojana, of the fourth Pank prabha 24,000 Yojana, of the fifth Dhoom prabha 20,000 Yojana, of the sixth Tamah prabha 16,000 Yojana and that of the seventh Mahatamah prabha earth is 8,000 Yojana. And in the last one Raju which is called Kalkala earth, there live Nigod, etc. five Sthavaras (lowest form of life). (T.s., 146-149)
6. What is the base of the universe ?
'Ghanodadhivalaya' (circle of humid atmospheric air layers), 'Ghanvatavalaya' (circle of dense atmospheric air layers), 'Tanuvatvalaya' (circle of thin atmospheric air layers) are the base of the universe. Just as the skin surrounds the body from all the four sides and the bark surrounds the tree from all sides, similarly these three 'Vatvalaya' (atmospheric air-layers) surround the universe from all sides. Each of these three 'Vatvalayas' are 20,000 'Yojana' thick up to one 'Raju' height measuring from below the universe and in both sides of flanks, i.e. up to where five 'Sthavaras' live and below all the seven earth (hells) and also below sthe eighth earth named as 'Ishatpragbhara' earth.
Above one 'Raju' in both sides of flanks, near the seventh earth (hell), each of these 'Vatvalayas' are respectively 7,5 & 4 Yojana, thick in all the eight directions, thereafter decreasing gradually these remain respectively 5,4 & 3 Yojana thick in all the eight directions of the middle universe. Again increasing gradually in all the eight directions of 'Brahamahaloka'they become respectively 7,5 & 4 Yojana thick, thereafter decreasing gradually above they become respectively 5, 4 and 3 Yojana thick in the flanks of 'Lokagra' (i.e. upper part of the universe)
These three Vatvalayas become 2 Kosa (4000 'Dhanusha') one Kosa (2000 'Dhanusha') and 1575 ('Dhanusha') thick respectively at the peak of the Loka (Loka Shikhara). (Tiloya Pannati, 1/273-276)
7. What is the colour of 'Vatvalaya' ?
'Ghanodadhivatvalaya' is of cow-urine colour, 'Ghanvatvalaya' is like black-coloured 'Moong' and 'Tanuvatvalaya' is of multi-colours. (Tiloya Pannati, 1/271-272)
8. What is the dimension of 'Madhya Loka' (middle universe) ?
The 'Madhya Loka' is expanded in one 'Raju' slanting from all sides and is 1,00,040 Yojana high, i.e. equal to the 'Sumeru Mountain'. The root of the Sumeru Mountain is 1000 Yojana as the foundation inside the 'Chitra Prathvi'. Thus it is 99,000 Yojana high and its peak is 40 Yojana high. There are innumerable continents and innumerable oceans in the 'Madhya Loka' which are surrounded with each other. Svayambhuramana ocean is spreaded in half(1/2) 'Raju' and the remaining half 'Raju' consists of innumerable continents and oceans.
There is 'Jambudvipa' in the very middle of 'Madhya Loka'. It is of the shape of a flat metal plate (dish) and is spreaded in 1 lakh Yojana. 'Jambudvipa' is surrounded by the 'Lavana Samudra' which is of bangle's shape. It is spreaded in 2 lakh Yojana. 'Lavan Samudra' is surrounded by 'Dhatkikhanda Dvipa'. It is spreaded in four lakh Yojana. 'Dhatkikhand Dvipa' is enclosed (surrounded) by 'Kalodadhi' ocean. It is spreaded in 8 lakh Yojana. 'Pushkar Dvipa' is surrounded by 'Pushkar ocean'. It is spreaded in 16 lakh Yojana but due to existence of 'Manushottar' mountain in between it, its dimension remains 8 Lakhs Yojana. Dimension after 'Jambudvipa' is to be taken both sides, therefore, the 'Adhaidvipa' ('Jambudvipa', 'Dhatkikhand' and 'Ardha Pushkar') is 1+2+4+8+8+2 +4+8+8=45 Lakh Yojana. Human beings reside in this 'Adhaidvipa'. Human beings can not go beyond it, so, the name of this mountain - 'Manushottar Parvata',is meaningful.
9. Why this 'Dvipa' is called by the name of 'Jambudvipa'?
One 'Anadhinidhana' (which has neither beginning nor end) tree of rose-apple exists in the north 'kuru' of 'Jambudvipa', that is why this 'Dvipa' is called by the name of 'Jambudvipa' similarly, because of the existence of 'Dhatki' tree in the north 'kuru'of 'Dhatkikhand', that 'Dvipa', is called by the name of 'Dhatkikhand. Similarly, because of the existence of 'Pushkar tree' in the north 'kuru' of 'Pushkar Dvipa' that 'Dvipa', is called by the name of 'Pushkara Dvipa'. (Sarvartha Siddhi. 3/9/383)
10. What are the names of mountains which divide the Jambudvipa, their colour, the ponds exist on them, the names of female deities reside on the lotus in the pond and the names of the rivers rise from them ?
11. Which are seven region divided by six mountains ?
Bharatvarsha, Hamvatvarsha, Harivarsha, Videhavarsha, Ramyakvarsha, Hairanyavatvarsha, and Aairavaratavarse these are seven regions.
12. Which river falls on which ocean ?
Ganga, Rohit, Harit, Seeta, Nari, Suwarnkoola and Rakta these seven rivers fall in the east Lavan Samudra. Sindhu, Rohitasya, Harikanta, Seetoda, Narkanta, Rupyakoola and Raktoda, these seven rivers fall in the west Lavan Samudra. (Tattvarthasutra, 3/21)
13. How many tributaries are there of these rivers ?
of Ganga - Sinndhu - 14000
of Harit-Haritkanta - 56000
of Nari-Narkanta - 56000
of Rakta-Raktoda - 14000
of Rohit-Rohitasya - 28000
of Seeta-Seetoda - 112000
of Suwarnakoola-Rupyakoola - 28000
Special mention : There are same numbers of tributaries of each of the river in pairs, i.e. there are 14000 tributories of the river Ganga, there are also 14000 tributaries of the Sindhu and so on. (Sarvarthasiddhi, 3/23/410)
14. What is the space-expansion of the Bharatkshetra ?
The space-expansion of the the Bharatkshetra is 526 %. Yojana. (Tattvarthasutra, 3/24)
15. How many Arayakhandas and Mlechhakhandas are there in two & half continent ?
There are 170 Arayakhandas & 850 Mlechhakhandas in two & half continent.
16. How many pleasure lands & lands of action are there in Adhaidvipa ?
There are 30 pleasure lands & 15 lands of action in Adhaidvipa.
17. Whether the action & pleasure lands are only in such number or still more ?
After Adhaidvipa there are inferior pleasure lands in all Dvipas up to Nagendra mountain situated in the last Swambhooraman Dvipa. But only animal live there. There are lands of action in the rest of the part of the outer Swambhooraman Dvipa of the Nagendra mountain and in the Swambhooraman ocean. (B.D.S. Teeka 35). Only animals also live there (Tirloksar, 323-324).
18. What is the shape of 'Dvipa' and oceans ?
'Jambudvipa' is of the shape of a flat metal plate and all 'Dvipa' and oceans after it are of bangle-shapped.
19. Why the 'Madhya Loka is called as 'Tiryaka Loka'?
Innumerable Dvipas and oceans up to 'Svambhuramana'are situated in oblique shape on slanting-even earth, therefore it is called as 'Tiryaka Loka'. (Preamble of Raj Vartika, 3/7)
20. Who are called 'Jyotishi Deva'?
The Sun, Moon, Planet, Lunar asterism and stars these five deities are brilliant/starry. Because of illuminating nature of these deities their 'Jyotishi Deva'name is meaningful. (Sarvartha Siddhi. 4/12/465)
21. What are Surya Chandrma ?
Surya and Chandrma are space-vehicles of 'Jyotishi Devas'. There is rise of Atap Namkarma (Emitting warm light) in the sun-disc. Originally the sun-disc is cold and its rays are hot and there is rise of cold luster in the moon disc (Uddyot Namkaram) which is originally cold and its rays are also cold. Space vehicles of astral deities are earth-bodied. (Karam Kand, 33)
22. Where are the residences of 'Jyotishi' deities ?
These deities live from 790 yojana height to 900 Yojana height from the 'Chitra' earth (the first earth of hells), i.e. in 110 yojana and are spreaded in one Raju 'Triyaka' up to 'Ghanodadhi Vat Valaya'.
above 790 Yojana ...... ......... Stars.
From it above 10 Yojana (till 800 Yojana) .... Sun (above 32 lakhs miles)
From it above 80 Yojana (till 880 Yojana) ..... Moon.
From it above 4 Yojana (till 884 Yojana) ..... Planet.
From it above 4 Yojana (till 888 Yojana) ..... Budha (Mercury).
From it above 3 Yojana (till 891 Yojana) ..... Shukra (Venus).
From it above 3 Yojana (till 894 Yojana) ..... Guru (Jupiter).
From it above 3 Yojana (till 897 Yojana) ..... Mangal (Mars) (Angaraka).
From it above 3 Yojana (till 900 Yojana) ..... 'Shani', i.e. Saturn (Slow motion).
Total above 110 Yojana.
In between the gap of Mercury and Saturn 'Nitya Nagriyan' (Permanent residences) of remaining 83 planets are situated. (Triloksara, 332-333)
Note - (1) According to Jain philosophy the Sun is at a distance of 32 lakhs mile from here and according to science it is 9 crore 30 lakhs miles away.
(2) According to Jain philosophy the Moon is at a distance of 45 lakhs 20 thousands miles away from here and the science regards it only 2 lakh 40 thousands miles away.
23. What is the mutual intervening space between astral celestial planets ?
The minimum intervening space between stars is /of 1 Kosa, the medium space is 50 Kosa and maximum space is 1000 yojan. The minimum intervening space between the Sun to Sun & Moon to moon is 99,640 yojan and the maximum space is 1 Lakh 660 yojan. (Raj vartika ch.4/13/6).
24. How many rays are there of the Moon and the Sun etc. ?
The rays of the Moon are 12000, they are cold. There are also 12000 rays of the Sun but they are warm. The Venus has 2500 rays, they are sharp, i.e. they are bright with the light. The rays of the remaining astral deities are of faint light. (Triloksar, 341).
25. What is the shape of the celestial planes of astral deities ?
Bifurcating an orange in two pieces if placed them facing upper side then the breadth portion remains upperside and a very little portion of the rounded part remains in lower side. Just of the same shape the celestial planes of the astral deities remain and, only their lower portion is visible to us. (Triloksar, 336)
26. What is eclipse ?
The celestial plane of the Rahu move below the celestial plane of the Moon and the celestial plane of the Ketu moves below the celestial plane of the Sun and after each 6 months at the end of fifteenth day of lunar fortnights (Purnima and Amavashya) the Rahu covers the Moon and the Ketu covers the Sun. This is eclipse. (Triloksar, 339)
27. How one month increases in the two & half year ?
There are 184 narrow lanes of the movement of the Sun and one lane is at a distance of 2 yojan from the next lane which takes one Muhurta time in crossing the lane hence, 30 Muhurtas (1 day) increases in 30 days, In this way 12 days in a year and one month increases in two & a half years. (Triloksar)
28. What is the shape of transporting deities of space planes of the Moon, etc. and in which directions they move ? Lion-shaped, etc. deities carry their respective space-vehicles in east, etc. directions, i.e. lions in the east direction, elephants in south direction, oxes in west direction, horses in north direction. Carrier deities of Moon & Sun are 4000 in one direction, and 16000 carrier deties in all the four directions. Carrier deities of remaining other space planes are 2000 each in one direction, totalling 8000 deities in all the four directions. But in constellations there are one thousand carrier deities in each direction total 4000 deities in all the four directions and in stars 500 in one direction and total 2000 in all the four directions. Space planes are carried by 'Abhiyogya' grade deities who are like servants in heaven, therefore, they make them selves as elephant etc.
29. How many Sun & Moon, etc. are there in Human universe ?
The number of 'Jyotishi' deities in 'Adhaidvipa' is finite but in the whole 'Tiryaka Loka' the number of 'Jyotishi' deities is innumerable.
30. How much is the family of one Moon ?
The family of one Moon consists of one Sun, 28 Nakshatra, 88 Graha and 66,975 Kora kori (crore x crore) Stars. (Siddhantsar Deepaka, 14/54)
31. In how many days one Sun completes the circumambulation of Jambudvipa ?
In two days (day & night).
32. In how many days one Moon completes the circumambulation of Jambudvipa ?
In takes some more time than 2 days (day-night). Due to this very reason there is decrease increase in Moon-rising.
33. What is Amavashya and Purnima ?
The Rahu covering one phase each day in each lane out of the 16 phases of the moon-disc sequentially covers up to 15 phases. In this way in which lane only one phase is seen in the last, that is Amavashya. From the 1st day of the light half of the lunar fortnight that Rahu goes on leaving one phase each in each lane through his particular movement due to which one day the full moon-disc is seen, that is Purnima. Or the moon-disc precisely by its very nature transforms itself as dark-lustre for 15 days and as light-lustre for the similar number of days. (Triloksar, 342 Distinctive meaning)
34. What is Uttarayana & Dakshinayana ?
When the Sun remains in the first lane then the Dakshinayana (i.e. the Sun's movement towards south of the equator) starts from the first day of the dark half oflunar month Shravana and when it reaches in the last lane then the uttrayana ,(i.e. the Sun's northward progress) starts. The Sun remains Dakshinayana from lunar month Shravana to lunar month Pausha (183 days) and from the lunar month Magha till lunar month Asar (183 days) the Sun remains Uttarayana. (T. S., 412)
35. How many lanes are there of the Sun & Moon ?
There are 184 lanes of the Sun and in these very lanes there are 15 lanes of the Moon. Both of these move in them.
36. What happens when the Sun reaches in the first lane ?
When the Sun reaches in the first lane then the Chakravarti visits Jina idol enshrined in the Sun's celestial plane from the upper portion of his palace in the city of Ayodhya. The object of ocular-sense of the Chakravarti measures 472637/, yojana ,i.e. 18,90,53,400 miles. (Triloksar, 391)
37. How many distance the Sun & the Moon each cover in one minute ?
The Sun moves 4,37,62311/, miles in a minute in the first lane and in the first lane the Moon moves 4,22,797 31/164 miles in a minute. (Triloksar, 388, Distinctive meaning)
38. Whether the earth moves ?
No. The Sun and the Moon circamambulate the Sumeru mountain. The Sumeru mountain, i.e. the Earth is static and the Sun and the Moon circamambulate.
39. Whether all stellar discs move ?
All the five types of stellar deities of the Adhaidvipa, i.e. of the human universe constantly go on moving and all stellar deities other than of the human universe remain static. (Tattvartha sutra 4/13/15)
40. How the days become greater and small ?
When the Sun moves in the interior lane (first lane) then the day becomes of 18 Muhurta (14 hours 24 minutes) and the night of 12 Muhurta (9 hours 36 minutes) and when moves in the outer lane (last lane) then night becomes of 18Muhurta and the day of 12 Muhurta. The Sun moves in the interior lane in the lunar month ofShravan and in the lunar month of Magha the Sun moves in the outermost lane. (Triloksar, 379)
41. Whether the speed / gait of the Sun and the Moon decrease-increase ?
Yes. The gait of Sun & the Moon in the first lane is like that of elephant, (i.e. extreme slow) in the middle lane like the gait of the horse (medium gait) and in that of the outer lane like the gait of the lion (fastest gait). (Triloksar, 388)
42. Whether the gait of all the stellar deities is identical ?
No. The Moon is of the slowest gait of all. The Sun is faster than it, Planets are faster then the Sun, the constellations are more faster than the Planets and still more faster gait is that of the stars. (Triloksar, 403)
43. Up to where the warmth/heat of the Sun spreads ?
The warmth of the Sun spreads from the middle portion of the Sudarshan Meru up to the sixth part of the Lavan ocean and the Chitra earth is 800 yojana below the Sun's disc and the root of the Chitra earth is 1000 yojana. The heat / warmth of the Sun spreads 1800 yojana ,i.e. 72,00000 miles in lower side. The stellar universe exists up to 100 yojana above the Sun's disc. Hence the warmth of the Sun spreads up to 100 yojanas (4,00000 miles) in the upper side. (Triloksar, 397)
44. How much is the movement region of the Sun & the Moon ?
The movement area of the Sun and the Moon is called Char Kshetras. There is one Char Kshetra each of two Moon and two Sun ,i.e. one char Kshetra of two Sun and one of two Moon. There is one Char Kshetra of two Sun of the Jambudvipa; 2 char Kshetras of four Sun of Lavan Samudra, 6 Char Kshetra of 12 Sun's of Dhatkikhand dvipa, 21 Char Kshetra of 42 Sun of Kalodadhi Samudra and 36 Char Kshetra are of the 72 Sun of Pushkardha dvipa. The Sun and Moon related to the Jamboodvipa move precisely in area measuring 180 Yojan of Jambudvipa and also move in Lavan ocean measuring 33048/1 yojan ,i.e. two Moon and two Sun move in the area measuring 180+33048/6, = 51048/ yojana. The remaining Moon & Sun up to Pushkardha move in their own respective areas / regions. (Triloksar, 374-375)
45. How day and night happen ?
When the Sun remains in east-west of Sumeru mountain then there is day in east 'Videha' and west 'Videha'regions and night in Bharat-Airavata regions and when the Sun remains in south - north of Sumeru mountain then there is day in Bharat-Airavata kshetra and night in Videha kshetra.
46. In how many Raju the 'Urdhaloka' exists and what is there?
Residence places of celestial beings (Heaven) start right after one hair's thickness from the peak of 'Sumeru' mountain of ' Madhyaloka'. 'Saudharma-Aisana' heavens are in 1.5 Raju from 'Chitra' earth and are situated facing each other face to face), 'Sanat KumaraMahendra' heavens are in 1.5 Raju, 'Brahama-Brahmottara'heavens are in 1/2 Raju, 'Lantava-Kapistha' heavens in 1/2 Raju, 'Shukra-Mahashukra' heavens are in 1/2 Raju, 'Satara-Sahasrara' heavens are in 1/2 Raju, 'Anata-Pranata' heavens are 1/2 Raju, 'Arana-Achuta' heavens are in 1/2 Raju. All these are situated facing each other. Thus 16 heavens are situated in 6 Raju. And above these 16 heavens there are, Navagriveyaka, NavAnudisha, Panch Anuttara Viman and also 'Sidha Shila' in one Raju. Thus the Urdhaloka (upper world) is situated in 7 Raju and 'Adholoka' (lower world) in 7 Raju. Thus the total height of 'Loka' is 14 Raju.
Note - The height of Sumeru mountain is included in 'Urdhaloka'. (Triloksar, 458)
47. What is the base of space planes (Vimana) of heavens ?
The Vimana of the pair of 'Saudharma' is situated on a kind of compact mass of water (solid) and of the pair of 'Sanatkumara' on the air, that of 'Brahama', etc. Four 'Kalpas' (heavens) are situated on both, the water and air and Vimana ofremaining 'Anata-Pranata' etc. are situated on the pure sky. (T. P., 8/206-207)
48. Where is 'Siddhyalaya'?
"Siddha-Shila' exists, above 12 Yojana from the flag-staff of 'Sarvartha Siddhi Vimana' in the very middle of Ishatpragbhar earth which is 45 lakh yojan round and eight yojan thick in the middle like a mass of silver and gold and full of many kinds of jewels which decreasing gradually becomes one 'Angula' in the end. It is like an inverted white parasol (an open white umbrella kept its breadth portion facing upside). The Breadth of Ishatpragbhar named eight earth is one Raju in east-west, Length (north south) 7 Raju and thickness (height) measures eight yojans. (T. P. 8/675-681) There are three 'Vatvalaya' (air layers) above this earth, which are respectively 2 'Kosa' (4,000 Dhanusha), one 'Kosa' (2,000 Dhanusha) and 1,575 'Dhanusha' thick. 'Siddha Parmesthi' of the maximal height (Avgahna) of 525 'Dhanusha' up to minimal height of 3.5 hand are ensconced on the upper portion of the last Vatvalaya.
49. What is the extents (measurement) of Siddha Kshetra ?
45,00,000 Yojana ,i.e. equal to human-region-measurement.
50. What is the length, breadth and height of Trasanali (A channel or tunnel of mobile beings)?
There is a 'Trusnali' in the middle of the universe which is one 'Raju' in length, one 'Raju' in breadth and some less of 13 'Raju' height and the 'Lokanari' is of 14 'Raju' out of which there is Kalkala named an immobile world in one Raju where mobile being do not live and in the middle portion of the seventh hell the hellish beings live. There are no mobile beings below 3999 %, yojana, i.e. in 3,19,94,666 /, Dhanusha. Similarly the intervening space from the Sarvarthsiddhi celestial plane up to Isatpragbhar ,is 12 yojana ,i.e. 96000 Dhanusha and the thickness of the Ishatpragbhar, is 8 yojana, i.e. 64000 Dhanusha and all the three atmospheric Air-layers (Vatvalayas) of the peak are 2 Kosa (4000 Dhanusha), 1 Kosa (2000 Dhanusha) are 1575 Dhanusha thick, no mobile beings live in this region (except Samudghat ,i.e. emanation of soul-points from the body without leaving the body by the Teerthankara and Uppada' (Instantaneous birth of infernal & celestial being). 3,19,94,666 2/, Dhanusha +96000 Dhanusha + 64000 Dhanusha + 7575 Dhanusha=
3,21,62,241 2, Dhanusha less 13 Raju high, is the Tras Nali. (T. P. , 2/6-7)
51. Describe the distinguishing features of Sumeru mountain & Nandishwardvipa ?
Sumeru Moutain - It is the first of all mountain of the middle universe. Situated in the large middle portion of Videh region, it is of golden colour and is of peak-shaped. There are total five Sumeru mountains - one in Jambudvipa, 2 in Dhatkikhanda and 2 in Pushkardhadvipa. There are 16 Jina temples in each of the Sumeru, thus total 80 Jina temples in all and total 8640 Jina idol are enshrined in them. This mountain is regarded as the seat of birth-anointment of Teerthankaras.
The height of the Sumeru mountain is 1 Lakh 40 yojana. The root of the Sumeru mountain is 1000 yojana. There are Bhadrashal forest, Nandan forest, Saumnasa forest and Panduka forest over it, from the middle of the Panduka forest the peak of the Sumeru mountain starts which is 40 yojan high. There is Pandukshila in the east-north of that peak, the Panduk Kambla in south-east direction, the Rakta in the south-west direction and Rakta Kambla in the north-west direction which are of crescent shaped on which celestial beings perform auspicious bathing (anonintment) respectively of all Teerthankaras of Bharat, west Videh, Airavat and east Videh. Similarly, there are Vijaya and Achal named two Merus in the east and west direction respectively in the Dhatkikhanda dvipa and there are Mandar and Vidyunmali named two Meru in the east and west direction respectively in the Pushkardvipa.
The structure of natural Jina temples on these is just like Sumeru (Sudarshan Meru). The speciality is that the height of each of these is 84000 yojan and the root of 1000 yojan is separate. Hence, the total height of all of these four mountains is 85000 yojan. (T.P., 4/2617)
Nandiswar dvipa - There are innumerable continents and oceans in this middle universe among which after the 7 continent and 7 ocean there is the eighth continent Nandiswar dvipa. In the east direction of this continent there is one Anjangiri named mountain of black colour, leaving apart 1 lakh yojan around it there are four oblong-ponds. There are Ashoka, Saptparan, Champaka and Amra named forests in all four directions of each of the oblong-pond. There are 16 forests in one direction of this Dvipa and total 64 forests in all the four directions. In the centre of each of the oblong-ponds there is one each Dadhimukh mountain of white colour and there are four Ratikar mountains of red colour in all the four corners of each of the oblong-pond Celestial deities make merriment amusement on the interior Ratikaras and Jina temples are there on outer Ratikaras.
Thus in one direction there are one Anjangiri, 4 Dadhimukha and 8 Ratikar mountains, over these mountains there are 13 natural Jina temples, In the same way there are 13 natural Jina temples each in all the three remaining directions. Hence there are 52 natural Jina temples belonging to Nandishwaadvipa. Each Jina temple is enshrined with 108 Jina idols of gems. The stature of these Jina idols is 500 Dhanusha which are ensconced in lotus-posture and attract the minds of the celestial beings and celestial female beings.
Their nails, red face, black and white eyes, black eyebrows and the black hair of the head add to the grace & splendour, the countenance seems as if the resonant preaching of the Teerthankara in the form of Omkar sound, which is destroyer of sins, is revealed, the gleam of crores of Suns & Moons becomes faded before the light of those jewels-made idols. Only those may have sight of those idols who owe intense feelings of attachmentlessness and renunciation. Those idols do not speak but right faith rises merely seeing them. We pay our obeisance to those pleasure-bestowing Jina idols. The Saudharma Indra, etc. celestial beings come here along with their family to perform anointment and worship. Kalpavasi celestial beings perform worship in the east direction, the Bhavanvasi in the south direction, the Vyantra deities in the west and the Astral deities in the north, with great devotion, Human beings can not go there, They perform worship in this very place by establishing Jina temples of Nandishwar Dvipa.